Randori – Freestyle (all out) against multiple attackers. Spontaneous responses.
Rei – To bow, formal bow. Salutation.
Reigi – Rei also translates as holy spirit, gi as manifestation. Combined it means proper etiquette.
Regi Shiki – Forms of ceremony and etiquette
Regi Saho – Forms of etiquette
Renshi – “Polished expert” swordmanship ranking, expert with the sword.
Ritsu rei – A standing Bow
Roku – Six.
Rokudan – 6th degree black belt, or six steps, or sixth step.
Ronin – Masterless samurai.
Ryo – Kata Tori Grabbing both shoulders.
Ryote Tori – Two hands holding two hands. Both hands. Held by both hands.
Ryote mochi – Two hands on one.
Ryu – Style or school of martial skills. A tradition.
Saho – Etiquette used in performing bows, handling the jo & ken, and so forth.
Sageo – Sword sash, cord.
Samurai – Feudal Japanese soldier, military retainer in pre-Meiji Japan. From verb ‘to serve’. Noble and honorable one who has the duty and responsibility of protect ing society.
San – Three.
Sandan – 3rd degree black belt ,or three steps, or third step.
Sankaku Irimi – Triangular entering, also known as is soku irimi; one step irimi.
Sankyo – Technique number three.
Sankyu – 3rd kyu.
Satori – Enlightenment.
Sayanara – Good bye. Sayu Scabbard.
Sayu – Right left, side to side.
Sayubiki – Pulling the scabbard to meet the sword guard.
Sempai – Senior student. You should respect this person’s experience. See Kohai.
Sei ritsu – Natural standing position.
Seishi o choetsu – Transcending thought about life or death.
Seiza – Formal sitting position with knees folded beneath you, the only proper way to sit on the mat. Correct and proper sitting.
Sensei – Teacher, instructor. Literally means ‘born before’.
Senshin – A purified and cleansed heart and spirit, enlightened attitude.
Seppuku – Formal term for ritual suicide.
Setsu Nin To – The sword that kills.
Setsuzoku – Connection.
Shi – Four.
Shiai – A contest or organized competition.
Shiai (Different kanji) – “Encounter with death” – Symbolized by the full concentration and absolute attention when practicing Aikido.
Shichi – Seven.
Shichidan – 7th degree black belt, or seven steps or 7th step.
Shidoin – A formal title, approximately, Instructor . Certified instructor (generally 4th or 5th dan)
Shihan – Master Instructor, teacher of teachers. (Generally 6th dan and above).
Shiho – Four directions.
Shiho Giri – Four directions cut.
Shiho Nage – All directions, or four direction throw.
Shikaku – Dead angle.
Shikko – Knee walking, the only proper way to move from the knees. Builds leg and hip strength.
Shimi – To squeeze or choke.
Shimoza – The lower seat on the mat or dojo, opposite the kamiza. (Shimoseki)
Shinbu Fusatsu – ‘Divine techniques do not kill’ – Key tenant in Aikido philosophy.
Shinai – Split bamboo practice sword.
Shin Budo ‘New budo’ – martial arts created after restoration of Emperor Meiji in late 19th century.
Shinken shobu – Duel with live swords. Fight to the finish. To throw oneself single mindedly into one’s training.
Shingon – Tantric Buddhism of Japan Shinnyo Thusness or suchness.
Shinto – The way of the gods. Traditional religion of Japan.
Shisei – Posture.
Shizen hantai, Shizen tai – neutral stance of the body.
Shodan – Holder of the first grade black belt. Also one step, or first step.
Shogun – Feudal Japanese military dictator.
Shoto – Short sword worn by the samurai.
Shomen – Front or top of the head.
Shomen – The upper seat, the shrine which houses the picture of the founder and the spirit of Aikido. Not a religious symbol, but a spiritual one.
Shomen uchi – Vertical strike to the top or front of the head with the tegatata (hand blade).
Shugyo – The day to day struggle, the work of education to refine and purify the quality of life. Rigorous daily training for overall purification. Lifelong discipline.
Sonkyo – Sitting on the balls of the feet.
Soto – Outside. As in soto deshi; outside students. We are soto deshi.
Suburi – Striking practice with a sword or bokken. A single movement using ken or jo, done as a solo practice.
Suburi – is training as opposed to kumi tachi which is study (keiko).
Suburoti – Large and heavy wooden version of the katana. Used for conditioning.
Sukashi Waza – Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a strike or grab.
Suki – An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack. Sumiotoshi Corner drop. Sutemi A hard fall.
Suwari Waza – Techniques with uke and nage in kneel-si t. Tachi Japanese long sword, slung sword. Tachi Tori Technique of taking an opponent’s sword and throwing him.
Tachi Waza – Standing techniques.
Taijo – Term for leaving dojo.
Tai No Henko OR Tai No Tenkan – The basic blending practice. Involving a 180 degree turn.
Tenkan – practice. Body change movement.
Tai no shintai – Body movement
Taijutsu – Empty handed techniques. Body arts.
Tai Sabaki – Body movement to avoid attack, followed by a response.
Taiso – Physical exercise.
Takemusu Aiki – Enlightened Aikido. Techniques ‘appear’ when needed.
Takenomo – Alcove space, ‘alcove of beauty’.
Taninsugake – Training against multiple attackers, usually from grabbing attacks.
Tenchi Nage – Heaven and earth throw.
Tanden – The hara, abdominal center of power. One point. About an inch below the navel. Where ki is located and drawn from.
Tang – The end of the blade under the handle of the sword.
Taninsu gake – Freestyle techniques against multiple attackers. See randori.
Tanren – Training. Striking practice with sword, Bokken or jo. Forging the body and mind. Especially intense training.
Tanto – Wooden practice knife, dagger.
Tanto waza – Knife practice.
Tanto tori – Knife practice to counter a knife attack.
Tashi – “Expert swordsmanship ranking, rank below renshi.
Tatami – Mats covering the dojo floor.
Te – Hand.
Tegatana – Sword blade of the hand. Hand sword.
Teito shinsei – Formal standing.
Tekubi – Wrist. Literally ‘hand neck’.
Tekubi waza – Techniques against the wrist joint.
Tenchi – Ten – heaven, Chi – earth, position of the hands, one up high one down low.
Tenchinage – Heaven and earth breath throw .
Tenshin – A movement where Nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack.
Tenken – Turning. To turn. Turning to dissipate force.
Tobu ukemi – Flying breakfall
Toma Tomoe – Circle.
Torei – Formal bow to sword.
Tori – ‘The one who takes’
Tsuba – Sword guard.
Tsugi ashi – Glide walking
Tsuka – Sword hilt (handle).
Tsuka-ate – Striking with the end of the sword handle.
Tsukagashira – End of sword handle.
Tsuki – Punch. Thrust.
Tsukuri – ‘Structuring’, whereby the skilful use of eye contact (metsuke), posture, hand movements and unbalancing (kuzushi), are combined to enable the aikidoka to throw or control an opponent.
Uchi – To strike, or inside.
Uchiage – Uchi Deshi – A live in student. Some schools have uchi deshi programs. Personal student or disciple. Apprenticed to the master.
Uchi gatame – ‘Pounding the body with the fists’. A warm up exercise used to stimulate the skin and muscles.
Uchiko – Powdered limestone for cleaning swords.
Uchikomi – Uke The person who give the attack and receives the throw.
Ukemi – Techniques of falling, Receiving the body. Includes rolling and high (break) falls. Protecting oneself from injury.
Ukenagashi – Warding off an attack.
Ura To the rear. Moving behind.
Ura San Kaku – Reverse triangular stance.
Ueshiba Morihei – The founder of AIKIDO.
Ueshiba Kisshomaru – The founder’s son, the late Doshu.
Ueshiba Moriteru – Grandson of the founder, Current Doshu at Hombu Dojo.
Ushiro – Back, behind, rear.
Ushiro dori – Bear hug from behind (rear). Where nage is seized and held from behind by uke.
Ushiro Eri dori – Collar grab from behind (rear).
Ushiro higi tori – Elbows from behind (rear).
Ushiro Waza – From behind technique.
Ushiro Tekubi Tori – Wrist grab from behind.
Ushiro Ryote Tori – Hands from behind. Both wrists grabbed from behind.
Ushiro ryokata tori – Shoulders grabbed from behind.
Ushiro kubishime – Choke from behind. Choking with one hand around the neck from the rear. Usually while holding one wrist with the free hand.
Wa – Harmony.
Wakizashi – Short sword.
Waza – Technique. Way of…
Tori – Taking away x, as in Tanto Tori. (tantodori)
Ya – Attacker in kata.
Yobi dashi – “Calling out”, a preemptive strike intended to neutralize an attack before it starts to develop.
Yoko – Side, to the side.
Yokomen – Side of the head.
Yokomen Uchi – Diagonal strike to the side of the head with the knife hand (Tegatana).
Yoko ukemi – ‘Breakfalls’ to the side.
Yondan – 4th degree black belt, or fourth step or four steps.
Yonkyo – Technique number four .
Yonkyu – 4th kyu.
Yudansha – Blank belt rank holders.
Zanshin Fighting spirit, remaining aware with a focus of concentration and prepared (on guard) for the next attack. Continuity. Unbroken awareness and concentration. The follow-through… Lingering spirit…
Zarei – Seated bow
Zazen – Sitting meditation, seated zen.
Zen – Philosophical system of thought popular in ken-jutsu and iai-jutsu. Buddhist meditation system emphasizing direct realization.
Zenpo Kaiten – Forward Roll.
Zenshin – Advance, progress, whole body.
Zori – Sandals worn of f the mat to help keep the mat clean.