Randori – Freestyle (all out) against multiple attackers. Spontaneous responses.

Rei – To bow, formal bow. Salutation.

Reigi – Rei also translates as holy spirit, gi as manifestation. Combined it means proper etiquette.

Regi Shiki – Forms of ceremony and etiquette

Regi Saho – Forms of etiquette

Renshi – “Polished expert” swordmanship ranking, expert with the sword.

Ritsu rei – A standing Bow

Roku – Six.

Rokudan – 6th degree black belt, or six steps, or sixth step.

Ronin – Masterless samurai.

Ryo – Kata Tori Grabbing both shoulders.

Ryote Tori – Two hands holding two hands. Both hands. Held by both hands.

Ryote mochi – Two hands on one.

Ryu – Style or school of martial skills. A tradition.

Saho – Etiquette used in performing bows, handling the jo & ken, and so forth.

Sageo – Sword sash, cord.

Samurai – Feudal Japanese soldier, military retainer in pre-Meiji Japan. From verb ‘to serve’. Noble and honorable one who has the duty and responsibility of protect ing society.

San – Three.

Sandan – 3rd degree black belt ,or three steps, or third step.

Sankaku Irimi – Triangular entering, also known as is soku irimi; one step irimi.

Sankyo – Technique number three.

Sankyu – 3rd kyu.

Satori – Enlightenment.

Sayanara – Good bye. Sayu Scabbard.

Sayu – Right left, side to side.

Sayubiki – Pulling the scabbard to meet the sword guard.

Sempai – Senior student. You should respect this person’s experience. See Kohai.

Sei ritsu – Natural standing position.

Seishi o choetsu – Transcending thought about life or death.

Seiza – Formal sitting position with knees folded beneath you, the only proper way to sit on the mat. Correct and proper sitting.

Sensei – Teacher, instructor. Literally means ‘born before’.

Senshin – A purified and cleansed heart and spirit, enlightened attitude.

Seppuku – Formal term for ritual suicide.

Setsu Nin To – The sword that kills.

Setsuzoku – Connection.

Shi – Four.

Shiai – A contest or organized competition.

Shiai (Different kanji) – “Encounter with death” – Symbolized by the full concentration and absolute attention when practicing Aikido.

Shichi – Seven.

Shichidan – 7th degree black belt, or seven steps or 7th step.

Shidoin – A formal title, approximately, Instructor . Certified instructor (generally 4th or 5th dan)

Shihan – Master Instructor, teacher of teachers. (Generally 6th dan and above).

Shiho – Four directions.

Shiho Giri – Four directions cut.

Shiho Nage – All directions, or four direction throw.

Shikaku – Dead angle.

Shikko – Knee walking, the only proper way to move from the knees. Builds leg and hip strength.

Shimi – To squeeze or choke.

Shimoza – The lower seat on the mat or dojo, opposite the kamiza. (Shimoseki)

Shinbu Fusatsu – ‘Divine techniques do not kill’ – Key tenant in Aikido philosophy.

Shinai – Split bamboo practice sword.

Shin Budo ‘New budo’ – martial arts created after restoration of Emperor Meiji in late 19th century.

Shinken shobu – Duel with live swords. Fight to the finish. To throw oneself single mindedly into one’s training.

Shingon – Tantric Buddhism of Japan Shinnyo Thusness or suchness.

Shinto – The way of the gods. Traditional religion of Japan.

Shisei – Posture.

Shizen hantai, Shizen tai – neutral stance of the body.

Shodan – Holder of the first grade black belt. Also one step, or first step.

Shogun – Feudal Japanese military dictator.

Shoto – Short sword worn by the samurai.

Shomen – Front or top of the head.

Shomen – The upper seat, the shrine which houses the picture of the founder and the spirit of Aikido. Not a religious symbol, but a spiritual one.

Shomen uchi – Vertical strike to the top or front of the head with the tegatata (hand blade).

Shugyo – The day to day struggle, the work of education to refine and purify the quality of life. Rigorous daily training for overall purification. Lifelong discipline.

Sonkyo – Sitting on the balls of the feet.

Soto – Outside. As in soto deshi; outside students. We are soto deshi.

Suburi – Striking practice with a sword or bokken. A single movement using ken or jo, done as a solo practice.

Suburi – is training as opposed to kumi tachi which is study (keiko).

Suburoti – Large and heavy wooden version of the katana. Used for conditioning.

Sukashi Waza – Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a strike or grab.

Suki – An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack. Sumiotoshi Corner drop. Sutemi A hard fall.

Suwari Waza – Techniques with uke and nage in kneel-si t. Tachi Japanese long sword, slung sword. Tachi Tori Technique of taking an opponent’s sword and throwing him.

Tachi Waza – Standing techniques.

Taijo – Term for leaving dojo.

Tai No Henko OR Tai No Tenkan – The basic blending practice. Involving a 180 degree turn.

Tenkan – practice. Body change movement.

Tai no shintai – Body movement

Taijutsu – Empty handed techniques. Body arts.

Tai Sabaki – Body movement to avoid attack, followed by a response.

Taiso – Physical exercise.

Takemusu Aiki – Enlightened Aikido. Techniques ‘appear’ when needed.

Takenomo – Alcove space, ‘alcove of beauty’.

Taninsugake – Training against multiple attackers, usually from grabbing attacks.

Tenchi Nage – Heaven and earth throw.

Tanden – The hara, abdominal center of power. One point. About an inch below the navel. Where ki is located and drawn from.

Tang – The end of the blade under the handle of the sword.

Taninsu gake – Freestyle techniques against multiple attackers. See randori.

Tanren – Training. Striking practice with sword, Bokken or jo. Forging the body and mind. Especially intense training.

Tanto – Wooden practice knife, dagger.

Tanto waza – Knife practice.

Tanto tori – Knife practice to counter a knife attack.

Tashi – “Expert swordsmanship ranking, rank below renshi.

Tatami – Mats covering the dojo floor.

Te – Hand.

Tegatana – Sword blade of the hand. Hand sword.

Teito shinsei – Formal standing.

Tekubi – Wrist. Literally ‘hand neck’.

Tekubi waza – Techniques against the wrist joint.

Tenchi – Ten – heaven, Chi – earth, position of the hands, one up high one down low.

Tenchinage – Heaven and earth breath throw .

Tenshin – A movement where Nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack.

Tenken – Turning. To turn. Turning to dissipate force.

Tobu ukemi – Flying breakfall

Toma Tomoe – Circle.

Torei – Formal bow to sword.

Tori – ‘The one who takes’

Tsuba – Sword guard.

Tsugi ashi – Glide walking

Tsuka – Sword hilt (handle).

Tsuka-ate – Striking with the end of the sword handle.

Tsukagashira – End of sword handle.

Tsuki – Punch. Thrust.

Tsukuri – ‘Structuring’, whereby the skilful use of eye contact (metsuke), posture, hand movements and unbalancing (kuzushi), are combined to enable the aikidoka to throw or control an opponent.

Uchi – To strike, or inside.

Uchiage – Uchi Deshi – A live in student. Some schools have uchi deshi programs. Personal student or disciple. Apprenticed to the master.

Uchi gatame – ‘Pounding the body with the fists’. A warm up exercise used to stimulate the skin and muscles.

Uchiko – Powdered limestone for cleaning swords.

Uchikomi – Uke The person who give the attack and receives the throw.

Ukemi – Techniques of falling, Receiving the body. Includes rolling and high (break) falls. Protecting oneself from injury.

Ukenagashi – Warding off an attack.

Ura To the rear. Moving behind.

Ura San Kaku – Reverse triangular stance.

Ueshiba Morihei – The founder of AIKIDO.

Ueshiba Kisshomaru – The founder’s son, the late Doshu.

Ueshiba Moriteru – Grandson of the founder, Current Doshu at Hombu Dojo.

Ushiro – Back, behind, rear.

Ushiro dori – Bear hug from behind (rear). Where nage is seized and held from behind by uke.

Ushiro Eri dori – Collar grab from behind (rear).

Ushiro higi tori – Elbows from behind (rear).

Ushiro Waza – From behind technique.

Ushiro Tekubi Tori – Wrist grab from behind.

Ushiro Ryote Tori – Hands from behind. Both wrists grabbed from behind.

Ushiro ryokata tori – Shoulders grabbed from behind.

Ushiro kubishime – Choke from behind. Choking with one hand around the neck from the rear. Usually while holding one wrist with the free hand.

Wa – Harmony.

Wakizashi – Short sword.

Waza – Technique. Way of…

Tori – Taking away x, as in Tanto Tori. (tantodori)

Ya – Attacker in kata.

Yobi dashi – “Calling out”, a preemptive strike intended to neutralize an attack before it starts to develop.

Yoko – Side, to the side.

Yokomen – Side of the head.

Yokomen Uchi – Diagonal strike to the side of the head with the knife hand (Tegatana).

Yoko ukemi – ‘Breakfalls’ to the side.

Yondan – 4th degree black belt, or fourth step or four steps.

Yonkyo – Technique number four .

Yonkyu – 4th kyu.

Yudansha – Blank belt rank holders.

Zanshin Fighting spirit, remaining aware with a focus of concentration and prepared (on guard) for the next attack. Continuity. Unbroken awareness and concentration. The follow-through… Lingering spirit…

Zarei – Seated bow

Zazen – Sitting meditation, seated zen.

Zen – Philosophical system of thought popular in ken-jutsu and iai-jutsu. Buddhist meditation system emphasizing direct realization.

Zenpo Kaiten – Forward Roll.

Zenshin – Advance, progress, whole body.

Zori – Sandals worn of f the mat to help keep the mat clean.